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Chania on the island of Crete (population
53,910)   
Three Greek towns have been nominated
as sites for a TLN Study Center
the Three Graces, Louvre, Paris
map of Greece Kavala Nafplio Chania
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James Emil Flege
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amphitheater Epidaurus Greece
acquaduct Kavala Greece
Kavala in northern Greece (pop. 56,371)
Nafplio in the Pelopennese      (pop. 33,356)
Chania is located 25 miles from the west-most extremity of the Greek island of Crete.
It is the site of the Minoan settlement of Kydonia, written in Linear as ku-do-ni-ja. This area appears to
have been inhabited since the Neolithic era. After the Minoan period, the town located on present day
Chania emerged as an important city-state of classical Greece. The first major influx of settlers from
mainland Greece were the Dorians, who arrived in approximately 1100 BC. In 69 BC, the Roman
General Caecilius Mettulus conquered the area and recast the city as an independent Roman city-state
with the right to mint its own coins (which continued until the third century AD).

The city was part of the Byzantine Empire until it was conquered by the Arabs in 824 A.D. Under the
Arabs, Christians were persecuted and forced to move to the mountains. The Byzantine rule was
re-established in 961 AD, at which time city was changed into Greek Chania. The town was fortified to
repel another Arab takeover using materials taken from ancient buildings in the area, and Chania
became the seat of a bishopric.

Following the fourth Crusade (1204) and the end of the Byzantine Empire became the property of the
Marquise of Montferrat, who sold it to Venice for 100 silver marks. In 1252, the Venetians lost the city to
Genoa, which held it until 1285 when the Venetians managed to retake Chania. The Venetians ruled
with an iron hand, but began to adapt to the local culture, even accepting the local religious preference
(Greek Orthodox). The outline of modern Chania is due to the Venetians. When Constantinople fell in
1453, many monks and artists took refuge in Crete and reinforced the Greek Orthodox religion on the
island of Crete, this creating a culture than blended Byzantine, Venetian, and Classical Greek elements.

The city was annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1645 following a 2-month siege. Most of the churches
were converted to mosques, and the Turks built new ones of their own. The Turkish pasha chose
Chania as the capital of Crete. Public and fountains were feature of Turkish rule.
In 1821, as Greeks overthrew Turkish rule, with a number of battles being fought in Chania. Most of the
casualties were Muslims, who in turn executed a local bishop. When a peace treaty was signed
between Greeks and Turks in 1878, many local Turks were either ki9lled or fled to Turkey.
Chania Greek orthodox church
Chania, Greece. Waterfront
Chania Greece lighthouse
Chania Greece, Church of St. Rocco
Kavala (Καβάλα), a city in northern Greece, is the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia. It is located on
the Bay of Kavala, not far from the island of Thasos. It is about a 1-hour (160 km) drive from
Thessaloniki, one-half hour to Drama (37 km) and Xanthi (56 km).
The city was founded at the end of the seventh century BC because of the presence of rich gold and
silver deposits in the nearby Pangaion mountains. In the 6th century, local residents asserted
independence from Thassos, and began minting its own coins, which bear the head of a Gorgon
(γοργὀνειο). Parts of the large Ionic temple constructed of Thassian marble in the 5th century BC can be
seen in the local archaeological museum.

In 411 B.C. Neapolis (later Kavala), allied to Athens, was besieged by the Spartans and Thassians in
the Peloponnesian war. Kavala began a Roman civitas in 168 B.C. It flourished due to presence of the
Roman consular road called the Via Egnatia. It was the headquarters of Brutus and Cassius in 42 B.C.
before their defeat at the Battle of Phiippi. The Apostle Paul spent time in Kavala on his first trip to Rome.

During the Byzantine era, the emperor Justian I fortified Kavala to protect it from enemies to the north. In
the 8th and 9th centuries, Bulgarian forces attacked Kavala, leading later to the reconstruction of the city
walls in 926 A.D. The city flourished because of its location between Constantinople and Thessaloniki.
The city was captured and burned by the Normans in 1185. In 1302, the Catalonians failed to capture
Kavala due to fortifications built by the Byzantines.

The Ottoman Turks took the city in 1387. It remained part of the Ottoman Empire until 1912. In the mid-
16th century the Ibrahim Pasha, the Grand Vizier of Suleiman, constructed an impressive aqueduct.
Which is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city today.

Kavala was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians during the Balkan War in 1912, but was annexed to
Greece in 1913. During World War I Kavala was occupied by the Bulgarian army. The city began to
flourish anew after the end of the Greco-Turkish war of 1919.1922. Becoming a center for the
processing and trading of tobacco. Many buildings still in existence were used in the tobacco industry.
During WWII, the Nazis ceded Kavala to their Bulgarian allies, but the city was liberated in 1944.
public beach, Kavala, Greece
Greek Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary, Kavala, Greece
habor of Kavala, Greece
view of harbour in Kavala, Greece from the sea
boat anchored near Kavala, Greece
Nafplio (Modern Greek: Ναύπλιο, Nafplio) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese. Fishing and shipping
Nafplio (Modern Greek: Ναύπλιο, Nafplio) is a seaport town in the Peloponnese. Fishing and shipping
remain important, but the mainstay of the local economy is now tourism, favored by the presence of two
excellent beaches not far from the city center. Most of the old town is located on a peninsula that juts out
into the sea. The peninsula forms a natural bay that is protected further by breakwaters. Marsh drainage
and landfills in the past 50 years have nearly doubled the land area of the city.

The area surrounding Nafplio has been inhabited since ancient times, but few signs of this remain
visible. The town has been a stronghold on several occasions during Classical Antiquity. Over the
centuries, Byzantines, Franks, Venetians and Turks have added to the cities fortifications. Nafplio was
taken in 1212 by the French crusaders, and was later sold to the Republic of Venice. In the following 150
years, the lower city expanded and new fortifications constructed.

The Ottoman Turks conquered the city in 1540. The Venetians retook Nafplio in 1685, building the castle
of Palamidi. However, only 80 soldiers were assigned to defend the city and it was easily retaken by the
Ottomans in 1715. During the Greek war of independence, the Palamidi castle played a major role. It
was captured by Staikos Staikopoulos in 1822, and the town became the capital of the First Hellenic
Republic, until 1834.

Tourism emerged only in the 1960s, and then slowly and to a lesser extent than many other parts of
Greece. Nafplio enjoys a very sunny and mild climate, even by Greek standards, and therefore has
become a popular winter weekend destinations for Athenians.
Chania is located 25 miles from the
west-most extremity of the Greek island of
Crete.
It is the site of the Minoan settlement of
Kydonia, written in Linear as ku-do-ni-ja.
This area appears to have been inhabited
since the Neolithic era. After the Minoan
period, the town located on present day
Chania emerged as an important city-state
of classical Greece. The first major influx of
settlers from mainland Greece were the
Dorians, who arrived in approximately 1100
BC. In 69 BC, the Roman General
Caecilius Mettulus conquered the area and
recast the city as an independent Roman
city-state with the right to mint its own coins
(which continued until the third century AD).